مننژیت به معنای التهاب غشاهای احاطه کننده مغز و نخاع می باشد. تورم ناشی از این بیماری موجب بروز علائمی چون سردرد، تب و سفتی گردن خواهد شد. از عوامل ایجاد کننده مننژيت باکتری ها، ویروس ها و قارچ ها می باشند، در برخی موارد مننژيت بدون درمان ظرف مدت چند هفته بهبود می یابد ؛ اما برخی دیگر زندگی فرد را تهدید می کنند و نیازمند درمان آنتی بیوتیکی فوری هستند . آماس سر که در واقع التهاب غشای محافظتی مغز یا همان مننژ ممکن است به دلایل بسیار دچار التهاب شود . به توصیه دکتر مونا حجازی ، بهترین متخصص مغز و اعصاب در تهران می توان با مطالعه دقیق و کامل این متن آگاهی کاملی را در اتباط با این بیماری به دست بیاورید.

 

مننژیت

 

تعریف کامل از بیماری 

مننژیت یا آماس سر ، در پی عفونت و التهاب پرده های محافظی که مغز و نخاع را پوشش داده اند به وجود خواهند آمد . به این پرده های پوشش دهنده در واقع مننژ می گویند که رایج ترین و متداول ترین حالت آن ویروسی می باشد . به طور معمول به علت وجود عامل باکتریایی پدید آمدن این عارضه امری بسیار نادر خواهد بود و علاوه بر آن بسیار خطرناک خواهد بود . شایان ذکر است که این گونه اگر داروی مناسبی را دریافت نکند می تواند منجر به از دست رفتن جان فرد شود . تشخیص دقیق بیماری بسیار مهم و حائز اهمیت است . اگر زمینه این بیماری باکتری باشد می تواند موجب مرگ شخص شود .

 

 

تشخیص مننژیت

با مراجعه به بهترین متخصص مغز و اعصاب تهران می توان با استفاده از چند آزمایش و تست علت پیدایش آن را پیدا کرد . در ادامه به شرح کاملی از انواع آزمایشات خواهیم پرداخت :

  • کشت خون 
    در این متد نمونه های دریافتی از خون در بانکه های ویژه ای نگهداری شده و در آزمایشگاه مورد بررسی قرار بگیرد که آیا میکروارگانیسم ها به خصوص باکتری ها در حال رشد هستند یا خیر ؟ همانطور که می دانید جریان خون در تمامی بدن در حال چرخش می باشد . از این رو وجود عفونت و یا حتی باکتری در خون بسیار مهم خواهد بود به همین جهت این تست را انجام می دهند . در حالت اولیه و نرمال خون از وجود هر نوع باکتری و میکروبی عاری می باشد.
  • تصویربرداری 
    توموگرافی کامپیوتری و تصویربرداری مغناطیسی قادر هستند که التهاب و تورم را نمایش دهند. تصویربرداری با استفاده از اشعه ایکس و یا حتی سی تی اسکن سینوس می توانند راهی موثر برای ارزیابی و تشخیص مننژیت باشند.
  • LP یا دریافت آب مغز نخاع 
    یکی دیگر از تست های مهم برای تشخیص دقیق وجود این بیماری ، دریافت آب مغز از نخاع خواهد بود . در بیماران مبتلا به این عارضه در آب مغز نخاع آنان به نسبت دیگران مقدار کمی گلوکز وجود دارد . علاوه بر آن میزان گلبول سفید و همچنین پروتئین آن ها افزایش یافته است . دقت داشته باشید که بررسی این مایع مغزی می تواند علت به وجود آمدن بیماری بر اثر باکتری یا ویروس را مورد ارزیابی قرار می دهد . بر طبق تحقیقات انجام داده شده اگر عارضه فوق بر پایه وجود ویروس باشد ممکن است که متخصص مغز و اعصاب در تهران در خواست انجام تست DNA را داشته باشد . با انجام این آزمایش می تواند به توالی یابی ژنومی که دلیل به وجود آمدن آماس سر بوده است را پیدا کند . یا یک آزمایش جهت تشخیص و بررسی آنتی بادی علیه این بیماری در بدن را مورد ارزیابی قرار می دهند.

پروسه رشد آماس سر 

باکتری هایی که دلیل به وجود آمدن مننژیت خواهند بود ، تجزیه شده و حجم بسیاری از مواد سمی را در جریان خون آزاد می سازند . این سم در خون موجب می شود که لخته هایی به وجود بیاید . دقت داشته باشید که لخته های خون به وجود آمده قادر هستند که رگ های کوچکتر را مسدود بسازند . از آنجایی که لخته های خون با سرعت بالا ساخته می شوند ، فاکتور های منعقد کننده خون کم می شود . همین امر می تواند برای خونریزی در پوست ، غشای مخاطی و ارگان های داخلی بدن دلیل خوبی باشد . نقاط قرمز یا قهوه ای رنگ بر روی سطح پوست یکی از علائم ظاهری این بیماری خواهد بود . در این باره باید گفت که این نقطه ها در ابتدا به اندازه سر سوزن ریز و کم سایز می باشند اما به مرور بزرگتر می شوند.

انواع مننژیت با نگاهی مختصر

عفونت های ویروسی و باکتریایی از متداول ترین نوع آماس سر به شمار می آیند . با این وجود می توان این بیماری را به دسته های زیر تقسیم بندی کرد. عبارتند از :

  • آماس سر ویروسی

رایج ترین گونه این بیماری آماس سر بر اثر ویروس می باشد . این نوع به طور عمده در فصل های پاییز و تابستان شیوع پیدا می کنند . در ادامه به برخی از ویروس هایی که سبب پیدایش مننژیت ویروسی می شوند عبارتند از :

  1. آنتروویروس
  2. ویروس هر پس سیمپلکس نوع ۲
  3. ویروس زونا
  4. ویروس ایدز
  5. ویروس اوریون
  • سرسام باکتریایی

این نوع عمدتا مسری می باشد و در پی عفونت های باکتری خاص به وجود می آید . به یاد داشته باشید که این گونه از آماس سر اگر درمان نشود می تواند منجر به مرگ فرد بیمار شود . به صورت آمار به خواهیم بیان کنیم ، در واقع در میان کودکان حدود ۵ الی ۴۰ درصد و در میان افراد بزرگسالان ۲۰ الی ۵۰ درصد را با این ابتلا به این عارضه و به ویژه عدم درمان به موقع متاسفانه از دست می روند.

  • آماس سر قارچی 

آماس سر قارچی یکی از گونه های نادر این بیماری به شمار می رود که به دلیل حضور یک قارچ می باشد که بدن را آلوده کرده است . با استفاده از جریان خون می تواند به مغز و نخاع دسترسی داشته باشد و بدین ترتیب تمام بدن را در بر گیرد . آن دسته از افراد که سیستم ایمنی بدن آنان تضعیف شده باشد عمدتا بیشتر از دیگر اشخاص در معرض ابتلا به این نوع می باشند.

  • مننژیت انگلی

این نوع بیماری به نسبت دو حالت باکتریایی و ویروسی از میزان ابتلا کمتری برخوردار است . انگل های موجود در خاک ، مدفوع برخی از حیوانات و حتی مواد خوراکی می تواند زمینه ساز پیدایش مننژیت در فرد شود.

نشانه های مننژیت باکتریایی

در این نوع آماس سر علائم به طور ناگهانی پدید می آیند و این نشانه ها عبارتند از :

  1. دگرگونی شرایط ذهنی
  2. حالت تهوع
  3. استفراغ
  4. حساسیت به نور
  5. تحریک پذیری
  6. سر درد
  7. تب
  8. لرز
  9. گرفتگی گردن
  10. خواب آلودگی

در چه موقع بهتر است که به دکتر مراجعه کرد ؟

اگر سابقه ابتلا به این بیماری در میان افراد خانواده رایج است بی شک شما نیز در صف انتظار ابتلا خواهید بود . در نتیجه بهتر است که بیش از دیگران آماس سر را توسط دکتر مننژیت در تهران مورد ارزیابی و بررسی  قرار دهید . با مشاهده هر یک از نشانه های گفته شده در ارتباط با بیماری بهتر است که در سریعترین زمان به بهترین متخصص مغز و اعصاب در تهران مراجعه کنید ؛ زیرا هر قدر دیرتر به متخصص مغز و اعصاب در تهران مراجعه کنید احتمال وارد آمدن صدمه به مغز را افزایش می یابد . دقت داشته باشید همانطور که می دانید عدم توجه به روند درمان و بهبود این عارضه می تواند باعث مرگ فرد شود . در نتیجه در پروسه درمان بهتر است که سرعت ببخشید که خدای ناکرده برای درمان تاخیر نداشته باشید.

 افرادی که بیش از دیگران به بیماری مننژیت مبتلا می شوند

  • هرچند مننژیت می تواند برای همه افراد ، چه مرد و چه زن و افراد در رده سنی ها مختلف به وجود آید ، یعنی محدودی سنی ندارد و مردم در همه جای دنیا به یک اندازه شانس ابتلا به آن را دارند ولی این بیماری در رنج سنی مختلف ، از کودکان زیر ۵ سال ، نوجوانان ۱۶ تا ۲۵ سال و افراد مسن بالای ۵۵ سال هستند که به دلیل ضعیف بودن بدن ، خیلی زودتر از بقیه ، به انواع مختلف این بیماری که در اثر وجود باکتری به وجود می آید ، مبتلا می شوند.
  • نوزدانی که هنگام تولد وزن بسیار کمی داشته اند هم از دیگر گروه های در معرض خطر هستند.
  • بیش از همه جای دنیا ، ابتلا به بیماری مننژیت را در آفریقا شاهد هستیم که به آن کمربند مننژیت آفریقا می گویند که بیشترین شیوع و میزان ابتلا به مننژیت در این منطقه وجود دارد.
  • احتمال ابتلا به این بیماری زمانی بیشتر می شود که افراد در مکان ها و خانه و سرپناه هایی بسیار کوچک ، نزدیک به هم و خفه زندگی می کنند که اغلب در مواردی نظیر کمپ ها ، خانواده های پر جمعیت ، ارتش ، ضعیف بودن سیستم ایمنی ، اعتیاد به سیگار و یا تنباکو اتفاق می افتد .

علل خطرناک بودن مننژیت

برخی موارد قادر هستند که درصد ابتلا به این بیماری را افزایش دهند. عبارتند از :

  • اگر شما یا فرزند دلبندتان یکی از نوبت های واکسن را از یاد برده باشید ، ریسک ابتلا به این عارضه را بیشتر می کند.
  • به طور معمول انواع اختلال ویروسی قبل از رنج سن ۵ سالگی به وجود می آید . عمده مننژیت های ویروسی در میان جوانان ۲۰ ساله رخ می دهد.
  • بانوان باردار به نسبت دیگران بیشتر در معرض ابتلا به این عارضه خواهند بود.
  • آن دسته از افراد که در مکان های عمومی زندگی می کنند مانند دانشجویان در خوابگاه  ، پرسنل نظامی که در پادگان و کودکان بزرگ شده در پرورشگاه ها در دسته افرادی به سر می برند که بیش از دیگران در معرض ابتلا به این بیماری قرار دارند.

آیا آماس سر واگیر دارد ؟

بله در برخی موارد که بر اثر وجود یک باکتری مننژیت هویدا می شود می تواند قابل مسری باشد و به دیگران انتقال پیدا کند . انتقال این عارضه از طریق ترشحات تنفسی و گلو همچون سرفه ، عطسه ، بوسه و غیره می تواند صورت بگیرد ؛ اما خوش بینانه میزان انتقال و سرایت این بیماری همانند سرماخوردگی یا آنفولانزا بالا نخواهد بود . در نتیجه در برخی موارد آماس سر مننگوکوکی ممکن است از مسیر تماس های نزدیک و طولانی مدت با اشخاص نزدیک انتقال پیدا کند.

عارضه های احتمالی مننژیت

ممکن است در برخی این عوارض شدت داشته باشد . به یاد داشته باشید که هر قدر روند درمان و بهبودی آماس سر را به تعویق بیاندازید میزان ابتلا به تشنج و آسیب های عصبی دائمی را افزایش می دهد. برخی از این موارد عبارتند از :

  • کاهش میزان شنوایی
  • اختلال در حافظه
  • اختلال در یادگیری
  • ایراد در کلام و صحبت کردن
  • شوک شدن
  • مرگ
  • تشنج
  • ضربه مغزی

علائم مننژیت در نوزادان

  • داشتن تب بالا
  • گریه مداوم
  • تحریک پذیری مفرط یا خواب آلودگی
  • کندی در فعالیت ها و عدم فعالیت
  • برآمدگی در نقطه نرم در بالای سر نوزاد
  • سفتی در بدن و گردن نوزاد

علائم مننژيت در افراد بالای ۲ سال

  • تب بالای ناگهانی
  • سفتی گردن
  • سردرد شدید متفاوت از سردردهای معمولی
  • سردرد همراه با حالت تهوع یا استفراغ
  • گیجی یا اشکال در تمرکز
  • تشنج
  • خواب آلودگی یا اشکال در بیدار شدن
  • حساسیت به نور
  • بی اشتهایی و تشنه نشدن

پیشگیری از ابتلا به این بیماری چیست ؟

برای جلوگیری از ابتلا به بیماری مننژیت ، می توان یکی از راه های زیر را در پیش گرفت :

  • واکسیناسیون بهترین وموثرترین راه برای جلوگیری از ابتلا به مننژیت است . با زدن واکسن این بیماری ، می توان بدن خود را نسبت به دریافت سه مدل از مننژیت ها حفظ کرد :
  • بیماری مننگوکوک
  • پنوموکوک
  • هموفیلوس آنفلوانزا نوع b

انواع بیماری مننژیت واگیردار هستند و می تواند به راحتی با بزاق و ترشحات بینی از فردی به فرد دیگر منتفل شوند پس رعایت بهداشت شخصی و و داشتن سبک زندگی سالم می تواند در پیشگیری از ابتلا به این بیماری موثر باشد.

 

330 پاسخ به علائم و درمان مننژیت مغزی
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